African Slaves in Islamic Lands

Volumes have been written on the trans-Atlantic slave trade and its consequences, but there has been far less attention paid to the forced migration of black Africans into the Mediterranean world of Islam, and the Arab lands beyond. From the ninth to the early twentieth century many black Africans were forcibly taken across the Sahara, up the Nile valley, and across the Red Sea, perhaps as many as were transported across the Atlantic in a much shorter period.